On December 17, 2012, the National Association of Home Builders, the Olympia Master Builders, the Home Builder Association of Greater Austin, and the Texas Salamander Coalition, Inc., filed a lawsuit (pdf) against the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Ken Salazar, in his official capacity, alleging that when the Service entered into stipulated settlements with WildEarth Guardians (pdf) and the Center for Biological Diversity (pdf) establishing procedures and deadlines for reviewing the listing and critical habitat determinations for 251 candidate species, it violated the Endangered Species Act and Administrative Procedure Act. A short discussion of the history leading up to these settlements can be found here. Plaintiffs allege in the complaint that "[t]he Service has abdicated a mandatory process based on best available science, public input and independent peer review in favor of a private settlement that lets two advocacy groups dictate the order, and pace of its statutorily required decision making process." As one example, plaintiffs allege that the agreements prohibit the Service from making a "warranted but precluded finding or to continue to assess information and conservation efforts that would lead to a warranted but precluded finding." While both settlement agreements do set forth procedures and deadlines for the Service's review, the agreements also state that "[t]he Agreement shall not (and shall not be construed to) limit or modify the discretion accorded to Defendants by the ESA, the Administrative Procedure Act ('APA'), or general principles of administrative law with respect to the procedures to be followed in making any determination required herein or as to the substance of any such determination. No provision of this Agreement shall be interpreted as, or constitute, a commitment or requirement that Defendants take any action in contravention of the ESA, the APA, or any other law or regulation, either substantive or procedural."
On January 2, 2013, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) issued a final rule increasing the critical habitat designated for the southwestern willow flycatcher (pdf) (Empidonax traillii extimus). The flycatcher is a small migratory bird (approximately 6 inches long) that nests in dense riparian habitats along streams, lakesides, and other wetlands. The Service listed the flycatcher as endangered in 1995, and in 1997 issued an initial critical habitat designation. Shortly thereafter, however, the New Mexico Cattle Growers' Association filed a lawsuit challenging the 1997 designation. As a result of this litigation, the Service issued a revised critical habitat designation for portions of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah. The revised critical habitat included approximately 120,824 acres. In 2005, the Center for Biological Diversity filed a lawsuit challenging the revised designation. In order to settle this second round of litigation, the Service agreed to again revise the critical habitat designation for the flycatcher. The final rule recently issued by the Service designates approximately 208,973 acres as critical habitat, which increases the total acreage by more than 70%.
In a recently issued draft biological opinion (PDF) , the National Marine Fisheries Service (Service) has concluded that EPA's registration of products containing the herbicides oryzalin, pendimethalin, and tricluralin is likely to jeopardize the survival of approximately half of the Pacific salmonid populations listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).
The draft biological opinion is the latest milestone in a series of controversial ESA section 7 consultations between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Service regarding EPA's registration of 37 pesticides for agricultural and residential use that EPA has determined "may affect" listed salmonid species. The draft opinion also reinforces the conclusion that Pacific salmon and steelhead are suffering the effects of a host of stressors, including pesticide exposure, reached by the National Research Council Committee in its recent report titled Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta.
As explained in a previous blog entry, the consultations are not only the product of litigation accusing the EPA of failing to comply with the ESA with respect to pesticide registrations, they are generating new litigation, and they are drawing criticism from members of Congress.
Lawmakers in agricultural regions are concerned that the Service is imposing overly protective buffers around water bodies where the pesticides could not be applied, which, in their view may dramatically reduce crop yield with no discernible benefit to listed species.
The draft biological opinion for oryzalin, pendimethalin, and tricluralin is likely to be controversial. As part of the reasonable and prudent alternative the Service has proposed to avoid jeopardy, the aerial application of any pesticide containing any of the three active ingredients within 300 feet of any surface water that connects with salmonid-bearing waters will be prohibited. In contrast, this is less than a third the size of the buffer required in the 2008 Biological Opinion for the Registration of Pesticides Containing Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, and Malathion (PDF), which required 1,000-foot wide buffers for aerial applications and 20-foot buffers of non-crop plantings along surface waters that connect to salmonid-bearing waters.
EPA is soliciting comments regarding the Service's proposed measures included in the reasonable and prudent alternative on its Endangered Species Effects Determinations and Consultations and Biological Opinions web page until April 30, 2012 . EPA will forward comments to the Service for its consideration.
Under the current schedule, the biological opinions for all 37 active ingredients are to be completed on or before June 30, 2013.