On January 2, 2013, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) issued a final rule increasing the critical habitat designated for the southwestern willow flycatcher (pdf) (Empidonax traillii extimus). The flycatcher is a small migratory bird (approximately 6 inches long) that nests in dense riparian habitats along streams, lakesides, and other wetlands. The Service listed the flycatcher as endangered in 1995, and in 1997 issued an initial critical habitat designation. Shortly thereafter, however, the New Mexico Cattle Growers’ Association filed a lawsuit challenging the 1997 designation. As a result of this litigation, the Service issued a revised critical habitat designation for portions of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah. The revised critical habitat included approximately 120,824 acres. In 2005, the Center for Biological Diversity filed a lawsuit challenging the revised designation. In order to settle this second round of litigation, the Service agreed to again revise the critical habitat designation for the flycatcher. The final rule recently issued by the Service designates approximately 208,973 acres as critical habitat, which increases the total acreage by more than 70%.